Thursday, September 12, 2013

Cancers 101

  Today, I'd like to take some time to explain some cancer jargon that I use on this blog, which are commonly used in the childhood cancer world.

  • Leukemia - a blood cancer that begin in the bone marrow and affects leukocyte development (white blood cell blasts).  The most common type of childhood leukemia is ALL (acute lymphoblastic leukemia), followed by AML (acute myloid leukemia).  There are also chronic and infectious leukemias, which occur mainly in adults. 
  • Lymphoma - a cancer of the B or T lymphocytes, a crucial part of the immune system.  It affects the lymph system as well.  There are over a dozen kinds of lymphoma, with the most common kinds being Hodgkins and Pre-T Cell Lymphoma.  
  • Sarcoma -  a soft or connective tissue tumor that can occur in various tissue types, such as bone (Osteosarcoma, Ewing's Sarcoma), cartilage/connective tissue (chondrosarcoma, fibrosarcoma, neurofibrosarcoma), skeletal muscles (rhabdomyosarcoma), or smooth muscle (leiomyosarcoma).  While these cancers are rare, 15% are diagnosed in children. 
  • Wilm's Tumor - a tumor of the kidney, which occurs only in children. 
  • Neuroblastoma - most common solid tumor that occurs outside of the brain.  50% of cases occur in children under 2, and grows on the sympathetic nervous system.
  • DIPG - as discussed in Tuesday's post, a tumor of the pons in the brain stem, which occurs only in children, usually in those under 5.
  • Glioma - a diverse group of tumors affecting the various glial cells that account for many brain tumors in children.  Types include glioblastoma multiform, astrocytomas, and ependyomas. 
  • Neutropenia - the period that occurs after chemo when blood cell levels plummet and immune system function is at an all time low. 
  • Bone Marrow - the innermost layer of long bones, where blood cells are produced.  It is affect by many cancers, and is affected by the majority of chemos.
  • Chemotherapy - literally a chemical that treats a disease.  Chemotherapy usually refers to the caustic, poisonous chemical used to kill cancer cells.  Chemos come in oral and intravenous forms, cause a variety of side effects, from hair loss to infertility and secondary cancers, and may or may not be effective on various types, stages and cell etiologies in cancer.

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